Dinosaurs and Dragon Legends
by Brian Thomas, M.S. *
|Look straight up from Melissa's head. There you can see some of the conglomerate layers in the sandstone. Lee explains: |
Parfrey’s Glen is the type site for the Parfrey’s Glen Formation, a formation that has outcroppings all around the Baraboo Bluffs. As we hiked the trail, looking straight ahead at the base of the hill the first time we forded the creek, we saw quartzite bedrock at about a 25 degree angle from horizontal confirming the fact that the quartzite has been folded. Once we climbed the first set of rock stairs and entered the narrow portion of the Glen, the quartzite bedrock cliff is buried several hundred feet west of the sandstone conglomerate that you have pictured. The only quartzite that you see in the narrow gorge are the pebbles and boulders of quartzite that had been broken off of the bluff by flood waters and cemented in a sand matrix. Unlike any other rock layer in the area, the Parfrey’s Glen Formation is a near vertical layer and was placed that way in situ up the face of the quartzite cliff. No matter what the geological “period” being studied, this formation remains the same and is therefore good evidence for deposition by an ongoing catastrophe of much shorter duration than evolutionists assume. If that were not the case, we would expect to see the conglomerate matrix to shift from sand to silt and then lime as the layers next to them did. But that is not what we find. The layers of sand, pebbles, rocks, and boulders were sorted by wave action and currents which changed constantly throughout the flood. While the Glen was glaciated, it was near the farthest reach of the glacier (terminal moraine). Therefore, this area endured the glacial abrasion for a shorter time frame and was not scoured clean. The glacier’s progress was also being impeded by its climb up the very hard quartzite bluff. It is difficult to say exactly how the Glen was formed but was likely a combination of receding flood waters cutting a channel through the Parfrey’s Glen Formation next to the resistant quartzite bluff and a deepening of that gorge by glacial meltwater later on. There was no dam breach erosion here as occurred in the Dells area.
Ripples form in sand from waves or water flowing. The top layer of sand could have developed ripples while underwater, and the catastrophic movement upward on day 3 instantly metamorphosed those ripples into quartz.
Quartz in its pure form is just silicon dioxide (SiO2). Liquid silicon dioxide is clear (like glass). The red color in the Baraboo quartzite is from varying amounts of iron mixed in the silicon dioxide. The layering of sand is evident in cross sections, and shows signs of moving water before God moved it to emerge above the surface. Each crossbed layer (horizontal layer with diagonal lines through it) was formed when fast-flowing water built sand waves that were originally twice as high as the resulting rock layer.
The twisted structure seen in some quartzite forms in sandstone when an earthquake shakes the sand underwater on a slope.
The Baraboo quartzite forms a bowl around the city of Baraboo. This bowl shape formed as the center depressed and the edges arose. This bending of the rock left slickensides on the horizontal planes between layers. These slickensides must have formed while the rock was warm enough not to fracture, but cool enough to leave evidence.
"Mysterious" potholes at
Devil's Lake State Park, WI